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Glossary of Key Terms Webdesign & Development

Glossary of Key Terms Webdesign & Development

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 1

address element An HTML element used to mark address or contact information.

American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) A character set used for the alphabet of English characters.

article element An HTML structural element used to mark articles or content about a specific area of interest.

ASCII. See American Standard Code for Information Exchange

aside element An HTML structural element that marks extra or side content on the Web page.

attribute A feature of an element that specifies the use, the behavior, and in some cases the appearance of the element.

blockquote element An HTML element used to mark a large section of quoted material.

body element Element in an HTML document containing all of the content that appears in the rendered Web page.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) A language used to define styles for HTML page elements.

character encoding A technique which associates each symbol from a character set with a numeric value.

character entity reference A short memorable name used in place of a numeric character reference.

character set A collection of characters and symbols representing every character that a browser is capable of rendering.

cite element An HTML element used to mark a citation.

client A computer or other device that receives a service.

client-server network A network design in which several clients access information from one or more servers.

closing tag A tag that marks the end of a two-sided tag.

comment tag An HTML tag used to mark comments about the document.

CSS. See Cascading Style Sheets

deprecation The process by which obsolete features of HTML are phased out.

description list A list containing a list of terms, each followed by its description.

div element A generic HTML element used for marking page divisions.

doctype switching The process by which browsers use the presence or absence of a doctype to decide which mode they should use to render a document.

doctype. See Document Type Declaration

Document Type Declaration (doctype) Opening statement in an HTML document that indicates the type of markup language used in the document.

element A distinct item within a Web page, such as a paragraph, the page heading, or even the entire body of the page itself.

empty element An element that does not contain content.

Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) A stricter version of HTML4 created using XML.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) A compact offshoot of SGML, used to define new markup languages.

file server A network host that provides storage space for saving and receiving files.

footer element An HTML structural element that marks the page footer; usually containing address and summary information.

grouping element HTML element that contains content that is viewed as a distinct block within the Web page.

head element Element in an HTML document containing general information about the document.

header element An HTML structural element that marks the introduction or header of the Web page.

heading element Element used for marking page headings.

hgroup element An HTML element used to group page headings.

host Device on a network that can be used to share information and services.

href The attribute in the <a> tag that contains the reference or address of the linked document.

html element The top element in an HTML document, containing all other elements.

HTML. See Hypertext Markup Language

HTML5 The latest version of HTML, which supplanted XHTML 2 as the future Web document language.

hypertext A method of organization in which data sources are interconnected through a series of links or hyperlinks that users can activate to jump from one piece of information to another.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) The language of Web pages used to describe the structure of documents through markup tags and create interconnected structures using hyperlinks.

img element An HTML element used to mark the location of an inline image.

inline element A text-level element in which the content is placed in line or alongside other element content.

internal style sheet A style sheet built into a Web browser.

Internet service provider (ISP) A company that provides Internet access and usually space on a Web server.

Internet The largest WAN in existence incorporating an almost uncountable number of networks and hosts involving computers, mobile phones, PDAs, MP3 players, gaming systems, and television stations.

ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) A character set character set that supports 255 characters and can be used by most languages that employ the Latin alphabet, including English, French, Spanish, and Italian.

ISP. See Internet service provider

JavaScript A programming language used with Web pages and HTML.

LAN. See local area network

Latin-I. See ISO 8859-1

li element An HTML element used to mark a list item within an ordered or unordered list.

link element An HTML element that links the document to an external style sheet file.

local area network (LAN) A network confined to a small geographic area, such as within a building or department.

markup language A language that describes the content and structure of a document by identifying, or tagging, different elements in the document.

Modernizr A free, open-source, MIT-licensed JavaScript library of functions that provides support for many HTML5 elements and for the newest CSS styles.

namespace declaration A statement in an XML document that indicates the default language used in the document.

nested A element which is enclosed within another element.

network A structure that allows devices known as nodes or hosts to be linked together to share information and services.

node Device on a network that can be used to share information and services.

numeric character reference The numeric value of a character symbol.

ol element An HTML element used to mark an ordered list.

one-sided tag A tag used with an empty element.

opening tag A tag that marks that beginning of a two-sided tag.

ordered list A list in which the items follow a sequential order.

p element An HTML element used to mark a paragraph.

presentational attribute An HTML attribute designed to indicate how a page element should be rendered by the browser.

presentational element An HTML element designed to indicate how a page element should be rendered by the browser.

print server A network host that provides printing service.

quirks mode Mode in which the browser renders the Web page in accordance with practices followed in the 1990’s.

script An external program linked to a Web page.

section element An HTML structural element used to mark a major section of the Web page.

server A network host that provides information or a service.

SGML. See Standard Generalized Markup Language

Standard Generalized Markup Language A markup language introduced in 1980 to describe the structure and content of documents or any type of information that is readable by machines.

standards mode Mode in which the browser renders the Web page in accordance with the most current HTML specifications.

strong element An HTML element used to mark strong or bold text.

structural element HTML element that defines the major sections of a Web page.

style sheet A document that describe how different Web page elements should be rendered.

syntax The rules that govern how code should be entered.

tag An HTML object used to mark different Web page elements.

tagging The process of marking elements within a document.

text-based browser A Web browser limited to text-only display.

text-level element HTML element used to mark content nested within a grouping element.

title element An element within the head element used to indicate the page title that will appear in the browser title bar.

two-sided tag A tag that contains both an opening and closing tag, used to mark elements that contain text or another element.

type attribute (styles) When used with the link attribute, it indicates the language of the linked style sheet.

ul element An HTML element used to mark an unordered list.

Unicode An extensive character set, supporting 65,536 symbols and used with many of the world’s languages.

unordered list A list in which the items do not follow a sequential order.

UTF-8 The commonly used character set on the Web stored as a compressed version of Unicode.

validator Program that examines document code to ensure that it meets all the syntax requirements of the specified language.

W3C. See World Wide Web Consortium

WAN. See wide area network

Web browser A device or program that retrieves the page from its Web server and renders it on a computer or another device.

Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) A group of Web designers and browser manufacturers formed with the mission to develop a rival version to XHTML 2.0, called HTML5.

Web page A document on the World Wide Web.

Web server A server storing a Web page.

WHATWG. See Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group

white space The blank spaces, tabs, and line breaks found within a text file.

wide area network (WAN) A network that covers a wider area, such as several buildings or cities, typically consisting of two or more local area networks.

World Wide Web A graphical interface to the Internet using hypertext links as a mean to access interconnected documents and services.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) An organization of Web designers and programmers that creates a set of standards or specifications for all browser manufacturers to follow.

XHTML 2.0 An aborted version of XHTML, created to provide robust support for multimedia, social networking, interactive Web forms, and other features needed by Web designers.

XHTML. See Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

XML vocabulary Markup language developed using XML.

XML. See Extensible Markup Language

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 2

<a> tag An HTML tag used to mark hyperlinks to external WebPages or to locations within the current WebPage.

absolute path A folder path that specifies a file’s precise location within the entire folder structure of a computer.

anchor An element marked with the <a> tag used to mark a specific location within the Web page.

augmented linear structure A linear structure in which each page also contains an additional link back to the opening page of a section.

child folder A subfolder of the current folder.

client-side image map An image map defined within the Web page and handled entirely by the Web browser running on a user’s computer.

descendent folder A folder which descends from the current folder through a chain of subfolders.

domain name The part of the URL that defines the server name.

e-mail harvester Program that scans HTML code for e-mail addresses.

extension The top-level of a URL that indicates the general audience supported by the Web server.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) A communication protocol used for transferring data to and from an FTP server.

FTP client A program that communicates with an FTP server to exchange data files.

FTP server A file server using the FTP protocol from which users can store and retrieve data files.

FTP. See File Transfer Protocol

hierarchical structure A structure in which the home page links to pages dedicated to specific topics and those pages, in turn, can be linked to even more specific topic.

home page A Web page that acts as a focal point for a Web site and is usually the first page that users see.

hotspot A zone within an image map linked to a specific WebPage.

HTTP. See Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) A set of rules defining how information is passed between the Web browser and the Web server.

image map A set of hotspots associated with an image, with each hotspot linked to a different WebPage.

linear structure A structure in which each page is linked with the pages that follow and precede it.

metadata Information within a Web page that contains information about the Web site itself.

name attribute A Web form control attribute that provides the name of the data field.

nav element The HTML element used to mark navigation lists.

navigation list A list containing links to the main topical areas of the Web site.

parent folder A folder which contains the current folder.

pixel A single dot on a screen or device.

protocol A set of rules defining how information is passed between two devices.

relative path A folder path that specifies a file’s location in relation to the location of the current WebPage.

semantic link A hyperlink in which the hypertext tag contains information about the relationship between the link and its destination.

server-side image map An image map that relies on a program running on the Web server to create and administer the map.

sibling folder A folder which is a child folder of the parent folder, but different from the current folder.

site index A Web page containing an outline of the entire Web site and its contents.

spam Junk e-mail that advertises products or services not requested by the recipient.

storyboard A diagram of a Web site’s structure, showing all the pages in the site and indicating how they are linked together.

thumbnail image A small figure used to represent larger image files.

tooltip Descriptive text that appears when a user positions the mouse pointer over a link.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) An address that specifies the location and type of a resource on the Internet.

URL. See Uniform Resource Locator

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 3

absolute unit A unit of measurement that is fixed in size regardless of the device rendering the Web page.

child element An element contained within a parent element.

color name A CSS name for a commonly-used color.

color value A numeric expression that describes the properties of a color.

contextual selector A selection that matches elements based on their positions in the WebPage hierarchy.

CSS @rule A rule that specifies a command or directive that controls how browsers interpret and run the contents of a CSS style sheet.

CSS1 The first version of CSS, introduced in 1996.

CSS2 The second version of CSS, introduced in 1998.

CSS2.1 A version of CSS introduced in 2002 to clean up minor errors in the original introduction of CSS2.

CSS3 The current working draft version of CSS.

density The number of dots per inch in an output device.

descendant element An element that descends from a parent element.

em unit A unit of measurement that expresses the font size relative to the font size of the parent element.

embedded style sheet A style sheet placed within the head section of an HTML file.

external style sheet A style sheet placed in an external file.

font A text typeface.

generic font A font name that describes the general appearance of a font.

hanging indent A negative text indentation in which the first line extends to the left of the text block.

hexadecimal A number expressed in the base 16 numbering system.

HSL model A color model in which colors are selected from a color wheel at varying levels of saturation and lightness.

hue The tint of a color based on the color’s location on the color wheel.

id attribute A Web form control attribute that identifies the control box.

initial cap An effect in which the first letter of the first line of a text block appears larger than the surrounding text.

inline style A style created using the style attribute within an HTML file.

kerning The space between letters.

leading The height of a text line.

lightness The brightness of a color ranging from 0% (black) up to 100% (white).

parent element An element that contains one or more other elements.

progressive enhancement A coding technique in which code conforming to older standards is placed before newer code.

pseudo-class A classification of an element based on its current status, position, or use in the WebPage.

pseudo-element An element that does not exist in the document hierarchy, but rather is based on objects that exist in the rendered Web page.

relative unit A unit of measurement that is expressed relative to the sizes of other objects within the Web page.

resolution The size of the output device, typically expressed in pixels.

RGB model A color model in which colors are defined by varying intensities of red, blue, and green.

RGB triplet A set of numbers representing intensities of red, green, and blue.

saturation The intensity of a color ranging from 0% (no color) up to 100% (full color).

scalable A page that can be rendered the same way no matter what size is used by the browser.

selector The part of the style rule that defines what element or elements are affected by the rule.

sibling element Two elements that share a common parent element.

specific font A font name that references a font installed on the user’s computer.

style inheritance A process in which style properties are passed from a parent element to its children.

style rule A list of style properties applied to an element or to a group of elements.

tracking The space between words.

Web font A font that is downloadable by the browser to be used in rendering the Web page.

Web Font Service Bureau A service that supplies Web fonts that page designers can link to for a fee.

Web safe font A font that is displayed in mostly the same way in all browsers and on all devices.

wildcard selector The asterisk selector (*) which selects all elements in a document.

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 4

absolute positioning A method of positioning that places objects a specified coordinates on the page.

asymmetrical balance A design principle in which one large page object is balanced against two or more smaller objects.

background property The CSS property that defines the element background by specifying the source of the image file, the location of the background image, and the direction in which the background image is repeated.

background-origin The CSS property that specifies where the background image originates.

background-size The CSS property that specifies the size of the background image.

balance A design principle based on the distribution of elements.

block A display style in which the content is displayed on a new line as a rectangular block following the box model.

border box In the CSS box model, the box that contains the content and padding boxes.

border property The CSS property used to create a border around an element.

border-bottom property The CSS property that defines the appearance of an element’s bottom border.

border-radius property The CSS property used to create a rounded or elongated corner around an element.

box model A CSS layout model in which element content is surrounded by a padding space and then by a border and finally by a margin space.

clip property A CSS property that defines a clipping rectangle, cropping an element.

content box In the CSS box model, the box that contains the content of the element.

contrast A design principle based on the difference among all of the page elements.

CSS-P. See CSS-Positioning.

CSS-Positioning (CSS-P) A collection of CSS styles used to position page elements.

display property The CSS property that specifies how browsers should display an element.

DOCTYPE In an XML document, the statement that indicates the XML vocabulary in use.

drop cap A design element that consists of an enlarged initial letter in a body of text that drops down into the text body.

elastic layout A layout design in which element sizes are proportioned relative to the default font size.

emphasis A design principle based on creating a focal point which is the center of emphasis in the page.

fixed layout A layout design in which elements are fixed regardless of the screen resolution.

float property The CSS property used to float elements on a specified margin.

floating A technique in which elements are taken out of the normal document flow and placed alongside the left or right margin of their containing element with subsequent content flowing around them.

fluid layout A layout design in which element sizes are proportioned relative to the screen resolution.

height property A CSS property that defines the height of an element.

liquid layout. See fluid layout

margin property The CSS property used to set the margin space around an element.

margin The space that separates an element from other elements on the page.

outline property The CSS property used to create an outline around an element.

overflow property A CSS property that defines how browsers should handle content that exceeds an element’s allotted height and width.

padding box In the CSS box model, the box that contains the space around the content box.

padding property The CSS property that sets the padding space around element content.

position property A CSS property that defines how objects should be placed on the page.

relative positioning A method of positioning that places elements relative to where the browser would have placed them by default.

reset style sheet A style sheet that removes many of the browser-specific style rules.

rhythm A design principle based on the repetition or alternating of elements in order to provide a sense of movement, flow, and progress.

symmetrical balance A design principle in which similar elements offset each other like items on a balance scale.

tiling A process by which a background image is repeated horizontally, vertically, or both in order to cover the background space of an element.

unity A design principle based on combining different design elements into a cohesive whole.

vendor extension Extension to the CSS language created and supported by specific browser manufacturers.

watermark A semi-transparent background image resembling a printer’s logo woven into the fabric of specialized paper.

width property A CSS property that defines the width of an element.

z-index property A CSS property used to stack overlapping page elements.

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 5

border-collapse property A CSS property that merges adjacent table borders into one border.

caption element An element that provides a caption for a Web table.

caption-side property A CSS property that sets the location of the table caption.

col element An element that defines a table column.

colgroup element An element identifying the columns in a Web table.

colspan attribute An attribute that causes a table cell to span across multiple columns.

column-count property A CSS property that sets the number of columns in a columnar layout.

column-gap property A CSS property that sets the space between columns in a columnar layout.

column-rule property A CSS property that adds a dividing line between columns in columnar layout.

rowspan attribute An attribute that causes a table cell to span across multiple rows.

table frame An attribute that specifies which sides of a Web table have borders.

table rule An attribute that specifies how internal gridlines are drawn within a Web table.

tbody element An element that groups rows belonging to the table body.

text-align property A CSS property that horizontally aligns the text within an element.

th element An element used to mark a table heading cell.

thead element An element that groups rows belonging to the table header.

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 6

access key A single key on the keyboard that, when typed in conjunction with the Alt or Control key, allows users to jump to a spot within a Web page.

add-on A stand-alone program run within Web browsers.

calendar picker A Web form control used to select dates and times from a calendar or clock.

check box A Web form control used to store data values limited to true/false or yes/no responses.

checkbox data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a Web form check box control.

client-side validation A validation process that is performed on users’ own computers.

color picker A Web form control used to select colors from an array of color values.

command button A Web form button that runs a command that affects the contents of the Web page or the Web browser itself when clicked.

control element Web form object such as a button, box, or list that provides ways of entering values for specified fields.

data type In JavaScript, the type of information stored in a variable.

date data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a calendar picker.

field An item that stores a piece of information in a form.

field set A grouping of fields within a Web form.

field value The data value of a Web form field.

fieldset element An HTML element that marks a group of control elements and data fields.

focus In a Web form, the state in which an element has been clicked by the user, making it the active control element on the form.

focus pseudo-element A CSS pseudo-element that selects the form control that has the focus of the user’s keyboard.

for attribute A Web form label attribute that identifies the id of the Web form control paired with the label.

form button In a Web form, a control element that performs an action.

form element An HTML element that marks a Web form.

get method A method of submitting Web form data to a server by appending it to the end of the URL specified in the action attribute.

inline validation A Web form validation process in which data errors are highlighted as they occur during data entry.

input box A Web form control used for entering text and numeric data.

input element A Web form control used to mark elements in which data can be entered.

invalid pseudo-element A CSS pseudo-element that selects a form control storing an invalid data value.

label element An HTML element that marks a text description for a Web form control.

legend element An HTML element that marks a legend for a Web form field set.

max attribute An attribute that specifies the maximum value of a Web form spin box or range slider.

min attribute An attribute that specifies the minimum value of a Web form spin box or range slider.

multiple attribute In a Web form selection list, an attribute that allows a user to make multiple selections.

number data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a spin box.

option button A Web form control used for selecting a single option from a predefined list of options.

option element An HTML element that marks an option from a selection list.

option text The text associated with a selection list option.

placeholder An attribute that provides a hint about the type of data accepted in a Web form field.

placeholder attribute A Web form control attribute that provides a hint about the type of data accepted in a data field.

post method A method of submitting Web form data to a server by sending it in a separate data stream from the Web page.

radio button. See option button

radio data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a Web form option button control.

range data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a range slider.

regex. See regular expression

regular expression A concise description of a character pattern used in data validation.

required data type A data type for a field in a Web form that indicates that a value is required for the field, and that the form will be rejected without it.

required field A Web form field that requires that a user specify a value before submitting the form.

reset button A Web form button that resets the form, changing all field values to their default values, when clicked.

reset data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a Web form reset button.

select element An HTML element used to create a selection list.

selected attribute An attribute of a selection option used to indicate that the option is selected by default.

selection list A Web form control used for selecting an option value from a long list of options.

server-side validation A validation process that is performed on a Web server.

size attribute An attribute for a Web form selection list that specifies the number of options displayed to users.

slider A Web form control used to select numeric values from a range of possible numbers.

spin box A Web form control used to select a numeric value from a set of possible numbers.

spinner control A Web form control in which users select numeric values by clicking a spin arrow button to increase or decrease the field value.

step attribute An attribute that defines the amount that the value in a spin box increases or decreases with each click of the spin arrow.

submit button A Web form button that submits the form to a server for processing when clicked.

submit data type An attribute value used with the input element to create a Web form submit button.

text area A Web form control used to store extended text entries.

textarea element An element that creates a text area box for multiple lines of text in a Web form.

valid pseudo-element A CSS pseudo-element that selects a form control storing a valid data value.

validation The process by which the field values from a Web form are tested before they can be used.

value attribute A Web form control attribute that provides the default value of a data field.

 

Glossary of Key Terms for Tutorial 7

ActiveX A Microsoft technology that can be used to play embedded media from within a variety of Windows programs.

Adobe Flash Player A video player that plays Flash Video files.

alternate content Content nested within the object element to be displayed by browsers that do not support Java.

alternate text Text nested within an object element to be displayed by browsers that cannot display the object.

amplitude A measure of the height of a sound wave that is related to the sound’s volume.

applet. See Java applet

aspect ratio The width-to-height ratio of video frames.

AU format One of the oldest audio formats, used primarily on UNIX workstations.

audio element An HTML5 element that displays an audio clip within the Web page body.

bandwidth A measure of the amount of data that can be sent through a communication pipeline each second.

bit A discrete piece of information stored within a sound file.

bit depth. See sample resolution

bit rate The number bits of data required for each second of sound.

cab. See cabinet file

cabinet file An installation file used to automatically install required software on a user’s computer.

class file An executable file that stores a Java program.

class id A unique string of characters used to identify an ActiveX control.

codec The software that compresses and decompresses a media clip.

conditional comment An Internet Explorer code structure in which IE-specific HTML code is placed within a set of comments to be run by specific versions of Internet Explorer.

container file A file that stores the codec for an audio or video clip.

embed element An HTML element used to store small stand-alone programs within the Web page body.

file compression A process that reduces the size of an audio file, sometimes at the expense of sound quality.

Flash Video file (FLV) A file that contains a video clip that can be displayed using the Adobe Flash Player.

FLV. See Flash Video file

frame (video) A single image within a video file that is played in rapid succession with other frames to create the illusion of motion.

frame rate The speed at which one frame in a video is replaced by the next frame.

frequency A measure of the rate at which a sound wave moves that is related to the sound’s pitch.

Java A programming language used for applications on the Internet.

Java applet A program embedded within a Web page, written in the Java programming language.

Java Virtual Machine A software program that runs a class file and returns the results to the user’s computer.

MIDI. See Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIME type. See Multipurpose Internal Mail Extensions type

Multipurpose Internal Mail Extensions (MIME) type A data type that identifies the format of the information contained within a file and provides instructions about how it should be interpreted.

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) A popular music format that synthesizes musical sounds through the use of mathematical functions that describe the pitch, length, and volume of each note.

object element An HTML element used to embed objects within Web pages.

param element An HTML element that defines the action and appearance of an embedded object.

parameter A value passed using a param element to an object to control the object’s appearance and actions.

plug-in A stand-alone program run within a Web browser.

RealAudio format One of the first audio formats that allowed for streaming over low- to high-bandwidth connections.

sample A single measurement of a sound wave taken at a specific moment in time.

sample resolution A value that indicates the precision used in the measuring a sound wave within a sample.

sampling rate The number of samples taken per second from a sound wave.

Shockwave Flash (SWF) A file that contains the video, audio, animations, interactive scripts, program controls, and other features to play Flash Video.

source element An HTML5 element used with the audio and video elements to provide the source of an audio or video clip.

SWF file A Shockwave Flash file that contains a Flash player, which can be used to play Flash video and animation.

SWF. See Shockwave Flash

type attribute (media) An attribute that defines the data type of a media clip.

video bit rate The amount of data in a video that has to be processed by a video player each second.

video element An HTML5 element used for displaying a movie clip within the Web page body.

Web Video Text Tracks (WebVTT) A proposed format for time-synchronized caption text to be used with Web video.

WebVTT. See Web Video Text Tracks

Windows Media Audio (WMA) A proprietary audio format developed by Microsoft to compete with the MP3 format.

WMA. See Windows Media Audio

 

 

 

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